Assessment of teachers' attitude toward environmental education and its relevance to their readiness to educating students (Case (study: Teachers of primary school in Tehran city

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی


1 مدرس مدعو، گروه آموزش محیط‌زیست، دانشگاه پیام نور

2 گروه برنامه‌ریزی، مدیریت و آموزش محیط‌زیست، دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشگاه پیام نور


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between "Tehran Teachers' Attitude toward Environmental Education" and their "Readiness for Environmental Education to Students." This descriptive-sectional study was implemented on 127 primary school teachers in Tehran who were selected by stratified sampling and appropriate allocation and randomly selected in each class. Thus, among the primary schools of education, ten schools were selected and in each school, the samples randomly assigned among teachers of the first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth grades. To determine the attitude and readiness level, the quantitative score of the questions was used and the score was categorized into three groups of good, moderate and weak based on the 100% possible score. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation of the parameters. The results show that 19.68% of teachers have a good attitude level and other teachers have a moderate to low level of attitude and 13.31% of good preparation and other teachers have a moderate to low level of environmental education. Also, the correlation coefficient between the"attitude" and"preparedness" of the teachers for environmental education is 0.738, although the correlation is not complete, in this case, the coefficient of determination is 0.545, which indicates a reasonably good correlation. The main reasons for this level of attitude and readiness and the relation between these two parameters are environmental media disputes and social networks in recent years, which required primary education.


عنوان مقاله [English]

ارزیابی نگرش معلمان نسبت به آموزش محیط‌زیست و ارتباط آن با آمادگی آنان برای آموزش به دانش‌آموزان (مطالعه موردی: معلمان دوره ابتدایی شهر تهران)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shaho Karami 1
  • Mehdi Esmaeili Bidhendi 2
  • Mostafa Naderi 3
1 Department of Environmental Education, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Environmental Planning, Management and Education, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Environmental Education, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]



Alavi Moghadam, M.R., Maknoon, R., Babazadeh naseri, A., Khanmohammadi Hzeveh; M.R. and Eftekhari Yegane, Y. (2012). Evaluation of awareness, attitude and action of Amirkabir University of Technology students on general aspects of environment, Journal of Environmental science and technology, 14 (4), 147-154.

Bogner, F.X. (1998). the influence of short-term outdoor ecology education on long-term variables of environmental perspective. Journal of Environmental Education, 29(4), 17–29.

Blackburn, A.M. (1983). Steps along the Path: the UNESCO/UNEP International Environmental Education Program, Environmentalist, 3(4), 269-276.

Baghianimoghadam, M., Nadjarzadeh, A., Askar shahi, M. and Salehi, M. (2013). Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Yazd City High School Students on the Role of Vitamin D in Health, The Journal of Toloo-e-behdasht, 11 (4), 59-69. [In Persian].

 Heidari, F. and Heidari, M. (2015). Effectiveness of Management of Environmental Education on Improving Knowledge for Environmental Protection (Case Study: Teachers at Tehran’s Elementary School), Int. J. Environ. Res., 9(4), 1225-1232.

Ghanadzadeh, M, Bolhasani, A, Akhavan, M, Eshrati, B, Shamsi M. (2013). The assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of students and teachers about waste management for developing proper educational methods in 2012, Arak Medical University Journal (AMUJ), 16(78), 36-49.

Gough, A. and Gough, N. (2013). Environmental education. In Kridel, Craig (Ed.), the SAGE Encyclopedia of Curriculum Studies. New York: Sage Publications.

Heimlich, J.E. and Ardoin, N.M. (2008). Understanding behavior to understand behavior change: A literature review. Environmental Education Research, 14(3), 215-237.

Hestness, E., McGinnis, J., Riedinger, K. & Marbach-Ad, G. (2011). A study of teacher candidates’ experiences investigating global climate change within an elementary science methods course. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 22(4), 351–369.

Heimlich, J., Braus, J., Olivolo, B., Mckeown-Ice, R. & Barringer-Smith, L. (2004). Environmental education and preservice teacher preparation: a national study. Journal of Environmental Education, 35(2), 17–60.

IUCN. (1970). International working meeting on environmental education in the school curriculum, Final report, Gland, Switzerland.

Jickling, B. & Spork, H. (1998). Education for the Environment: a critique. Environmental Education, 4(3), 309-327.

Kals, E, Schumacher, D, Montada, L. (1999).Emotional affinity toward nature as a motivational basis to protect nature. Environment and Behavior, 31(2), 178–202.

Karami, Sh. and Larijani, M.(2015). Environmental Education, a Way to Introduce and Improve Urban Environmental Pollution, Jentashapir Journal of Health Research, 6(3), 32-37.

Karami, Sh., Shobeiri, S.M. and Jafari, H. (2016). Development of the Climate Change Education Plan in Formal Education Based on Educational Process Management in the ISO 10015 Standards, Journal of Environmental Studies42(1), 245-258 [In Persian].

Karami, Sh., Shobeiri, S.M., Jafari, H. and Nabibid Hendi, Gh. (2017). "Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) towards climate change education (CCE) among lower secondary teachers in Tehran, Iran", International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, Vol. 9 Issue: 3, doi: 10.1108/ IJCCSM-04-2016-0043.

Khalid, T. (2003). Pre-service high school teachers’ perceptions of three environmental phenomena. Environmental Education Research, 9(1), 35–50.

Kumar S. J., Bellad, A. A., Angolkar, M. (2015). Assessment of the Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Global Warming among High School Students of Ramnagar, Belagavi city: A Cross-Sectional Study, IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, 14(4), 74-78.

Lahyjanyan, A. (2012). Environmental Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University Press, P 500, Tehran, Iran.

Leeming, F.C, Dwyer, W.O, Porter, B.E, Cobern, M.K. (1993). Outcome research in environmental education: A critical review. Journal of Environmental Education, 24(4), 8–21.

Leeming, F.C, Porter, B.E, Dwyer, W.O, Cobern, M.K, Oliver, D.P. (1997). Effects of participation in class activities on children’s environmental attitudes and knowledge. Journal of Environmental Education, 28(2), 33–42.

Maher, F.( 1980).Applied Soci-Psychology, Mashhad: Astan Quds Razavi Publication.

McKeown, R. & Hopkins, C. (2010) Rethinking climate change education. Green Teacher, 89, 17–21.

McKeown-Ice, R. (2000). Environmental education in the United States: a survey of preservice teacher education programs. Journal of Environmental Education, 32(1), 4–11.

National Research Council (NRC). (2007). Taking Science to School: Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8. Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten through Eighth Grade. R.A. Duschl, H.A. Schweingruber, and A.W. Shouse (Eds.). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Palmer, J.A. (1998). Environmental Education in the 21st Century: Theory, Practice, Progress, and Promise, by Routledge, New York. Pp 285.

 Pooley, J.A, Connor, O.M. (2000). Environmental education and attitudes: Emotions and beliefs are what is needed. Environment and Behavior, 32(5), 711–723.

Powers, A. (2004). Teacher preparation for environmental education: faculty perspectives on the infusion of environmental education into pre-service methods courses. Journal of Environmental Education, 35(3), 3–11.

 Rezaei, M. Shobeiri, S.M, Sarmadi, M.R. and Larijani, M. (2016). The Effect of Environmental Radio Programs on Promotion of Students Environmental Literacy, Journal of Environmental Education and Sustainable Development, 4(4), 41-54 [In Persian].

Saad, R. and BouJaoude, S. (2012). the Relationship between Teachers’ Knowledge and Beliefs about Science and Inquiry and Their Classroom Practices, Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 8(2), 113-128.

Salehi Omran, A., Agha Mohammadi, A. (2008). Environmental Knowledge, attitude and skills of primary school teachers in the province's Mazandaran. Journal of Education. 95, 91-118. [In Persian].

Santos, J.R.A. (1999). Cronbach’s alpha: A tool for assessing the reliability of scales. J Extension, Vol. 37, 1-5.

Shobeiri, M., Abdullahi, S. (2009). Theory and Application of Environmental Education. Tehran: Payame Noor University [In Persian].

Stapp, W.B. (1999). The Concept of Environmental Education,  The Journal of Environmental Education, 1(1), 30-31.

Stokes, D. and Crawshaw, B. (1986). Teaching strategies for environmental education, Environmentalist, 6(1), 35-43.

Swan, J.A, (1999) the challenge of environmental education" Phi Delta Kappan, 51, pp. 26-28.

TDT: Teacher Development Trust .(2012). available at, Date accessed 20 may 2014. Thathong, K. (2010), An integration of teaching and learning activities on environmental education in the subjects. Research in Higher Education Journal, 7, 1-8.

Tolba, M. (1977). Opening Statement, the International Workshop on Environmental Education, Final Report, Belgrade, Yugoslavia, October 1974, Paris: UNESCO/UNEP.

 Van Petegem, P., Blieck, A., Imbrecht, I. & Van Hout, T. (2005). Implementing environmental education in pre-service teacher training. Environmental Education Research, 11(2), 161–171.

WCED.(1987).Our Common Future, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wheeler, K.(1985). Environment Education: An Historical Perspective, Environmental Education, and Information, 4(2), the Environmental Institute, University of Salford.

Wilkins, J. L. M. (2008). the relationship among elementary teachers’ content knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices, Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 11( 2),  139–164.

Zabahyan, M. (2005). formal and informal education, goals, methods, features, and audiences, Journal of Cooperatives, 152, PP. 65-67. [In Persian].

Zamani Moghadam, A. and Saedi, M. (2013). The effect of environmental education on teachers knowledge, attitude, and skills (Case study: primary school teachers district 12, Tehran), [G2] Journal of Environmental Education and Sustainable Development, 1(3), 19-30 [In Persian].