Relationship between Air Pollutants and Mortality from Cardiorespiratory Diseases in Mashhad: A Step Towards Increasing Citizens’ Awareness of Adverse Effects of Pollutants

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه روانشناسی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد فیزیولوژی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد دامغان، دامغان، ایران

3 استاد، گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

10.30473/ee.2019.6062

چکیده

Air pollution in different cities of the world is a complex mixture of toxic components, including particulate matter (PM), mainly produced by combustion processes. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted to investigate the relationship between air pollutants and mortality from cardiorespiratory diseases in Mashhad. To this end, the data on mortality from cardiorespiratory diseases in 2012-2013 were obtained from Razavi Khorasan Health Organization. The mean daily concentration of air pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO), PM with a diameter of 10 micrometers or less (PM10), and PM2.5 was calculated. The results of data analysis showed that there was a relationship between PM10 concentration and the rate of mortality from cardiovascular diseases in men. In addition, a significant relationship was observed between PM10 concentration and the rate of mortality from respiratory diseases in both men and women. The results indicated that there was a significant relationship between PM2.5 concentration and the rate of mortality from cardiorespiratory diseases in both men and women. There was also a significant relationship between CO concentration and the rate of mortality from respiratory diseases in women. The results demonstrated that PM2.5 has the greatest effect on mortality from cardiorespiratory diseases. The study findings were reported within the context of environmental communication by using the media tools to raise public awareness of the adverse effects of pollutants.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Relationship between Air Pollutants and Mortality from Cardiorespiratory Diseases in Mashhad: A Step Towards Increasing Citizens’ Awareness of Adverse Effects of Pollutants

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Akbar Malekirad 1
  • Fahimeh Tanja 2
  • Gholamhassan Vaezi 3
1 Assistant Prof., Department of Psychology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
2 Master of Physiology, Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran
3 Prof. of Physiology, Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Air pollution in different cities of the world is a complex mixture of toxic components, including particulate matter (PM), mainly produced by combustion processes. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted to investigate the relationship between air pollutants and mortality from cardiorespiratory diseases in Mashhad. To this end, the data on mortality from cardiorespiratory diseases in 2012-2013 were obtained from Razavi Khorasan Health Organization. The mean daily concentration of air pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO), PM with a diameter of 10 micrometers or less (PM10), and PM2.5 was calculated. The results of data analysis showed that there was a relationship between PM10 concentration and the rate of mortality from cardiovascular diseases in men. In addition, a significant relationship was observed between PM10 concentration and the rate of mortality from respiratory diseases in both men and women. The results indicated that there was a significant relationship between PM2.5 concentration and the rate of mortality from cardiorespiratory diseases in both men and women. There was also a significant relationship between CO concentration and the rate of mortality from respiratory diseases in women. The results demonstrated that PM2.5 has the greatest effect on mortality from cardiorespiratory diseases. The study findings were reported within the context of environmental communication by using the media tools to raise public awareness of the adverse effects of pollutants.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Air pollution
  • cardiorespiratory diseases
  • mortality
  • awareness
Alidadi, H., Hadi Luo, T., Pazira, M., Pezeshk, Y.A., and Rahimi, M. (2013). A survey on the relationship between air pollution and death and death from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Mashhad during 2007-2011. The 16th National Conference on Environmental Health in Iran - October 2013. [In Persian]
Amiri, H., Noori Sepehr, M., Sadegh Hasanvand M., Mazlomi, S., and Mohammadi Kolhori E. (2013). Evaluation of health effects (deaths and diseases caused by cardiovascular and respiratory diseases) due to PM10 and O3 air pollutants in Karaj. The 16th National Conference on Environmental Health in Iran - October 2013. [In Persian]
 
Anderson, H. R., Atkinson, R. W., Peacock, J. L., Marston, L. and Konstantinou, K. (2004). A meta-analysis of time-series studies and panel studies of particulate matter (PM) and Ozone (O3). Report of WHO task group. Copenhagen, WHO regional office for Europe.
 
Azhdapour Esfandabadi, A., Soleimani A., Khademi, S., Sharafi, Z., and Jalili M. (2011). The Effect of Air Pollution on Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Fatal, and Accidental Diseases in Shiraz, Iran (Study Period, Feb. 13, 2011, to Feb. 30, 2011). The 16th National Conference on Environmental Health in Iran, October 2013. [In Persian]
 
Badyda, AJ., Grellier, J., Dąbrowiecki, P. (2017).Ambient PM2.5 Exposure and Mortality Due to Lung Cancer and Cardiopulmonary Diseases in Polish Cities. Adv Exp Med, Biol. 944, 9-17.
 
Bascom, R., Bromberg, PA. (1996). Health effect of outdoor air pollution. Am J Respir Crit Med, 153, 3-50.
 
Burnett, RT., Brook, J., Dann, T., Delocla C, Philips O, Cakmak S, Vincent R, Goldberg MS, Krewski D.(2000). Association between particulate – and gas-phases components of urban air pollution and daily mortality in eight Canadian cities. Inhal Toxicol. 12Suppl 4, 15-39.
 
Chen, R., Yin, P., Meng, X., Liu, C., Wang, L., Xu, X., Ross, JA., Tse, LA., Zhao, Z., Kan, H. and Zhou, M. (2017). Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Mortality. A Nationwide Analysis in 272 Chinese Cities. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 196(1), 73-81. DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201609-1862OC.
Chen, L., Shi, M., Gao, S., Li, S., Mao, J., Zhang, H., Sun, Y., Bai, Z., and Wang, Z. (2017). Assessment of population exposure to PM2.5 for mortality in China and its public health benefit based on BenMAP. Environ Pollut. Feb; 221:311-317.doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.11.080. Epub 2016 Dec 3.
Cohen, A.J, Anderson, H.R. and Ostro, B. (2004). Mortality impacts of urban air pollution In Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Murray CJL, eds. Comparative quantification of health risks: the global, regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. Geneva: World health organization, Vol2.
 
Cohen, A.J., Ross Anderson, H., Ostro, B., Pandey, K.D., Krzyzanowski, M., Kunzli, N., Gutschmidt, K., Pope, A., Romieu, I., Samet, J.M. and Smith, K. (2005). The global burden of disease due to outdoor air pollution. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 68 (13-14), 1301-7.
Delangizan, S. and Jafari Motlagh, Z. (2013). Investigating the effect of refractometer on hospitalization and mortality of cardiovascular and respiratory patients (Case study: Kermanshah city, first six months of 2011-2011). Journal of Health and Environment, Journal of Science and Research, Environmental Health Association of Iran, 6(1), 76-65. [In Persian]
 
 Dockery, DW. Pope, CA. (1994). 3rd. Acute respiratory effects of particulate air pollution. Annu Rev Public Health, 15, 107-32.
Dominici, F., McDermott, A., Zeger, SL., and Samet, JM. (2002). On the use of generalized additive models in time-series studies of air pollution and health. Arm J Epidemiol, 156(3), 193-203.
 
Farajzadeh, M. and Darand, M. (2008) Analysis of the effect of air temperature on Tehran's mortality and morbidity. Journal of Hakim Research, 11(2), 34-27. [In Persian]
 
Gholizadeh, M.H., Farahzadeh, M. and Darand, M. (2009). Relationship between air pollution and population mortality in Tehran, Journal of Hakim Research, 12(2), 71-65. [In Persian]
 
Ghorbani, M., Younesian, M., Photohi, A., Zeraati, H., Sadeghian, S. and Rashidi, Y. (2007) The relationship between exposure to air pollution and the onset of acute cardiac syndrome attacks in Tehran's Heart Hospital by cross-sectional approach. Journal of Epidemiology, 3(2&1), 59-53.
 
Goldberg, M.S. (1996). Particulate air pollution and daily mortality: who is at risk? J Aerosol Med., 9(1), 43-53.
 
Goldberg, M.S., Burnett, R.T, Bailar, JC 3rd, Brook, J., Bonvalot, Y., Tamblyn, R., Singh, R., Valois, M.F. and Vincent, R. (2001). The association between daily mortality and ambient air particle pollution in Montreal, Quebec. 2. Cause-specific mortality. Environ Res. 86(1), 26-36.
 
Khaniabadi, YO., Hopke, PK., Goudarzi, G., Daryanoosh, SM., Jourvand, M. and Basiri, H. (2017). Cardiopulmonary mortality and COPD attributed to ambient ozone. Environ Res. 2017 Jan; 152:336-341. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.10.008. Epub 2016 Nov 12.
 
Jaakkola, JJK. Nafsted, P., Magnus, P. (2001). Environmental tobacco smoke, parental autopsy, and childhood asthma. Environ Health Perspect, 109, 579-82.
 
Jonidi Jafari, A., Zohoor, A., Rezaei, R. and Malek Afzali, SH and Seif, A. (2009). Estimation of the number of heart and respiratory deaths due to air pollution in Tehran, Medicine and Cultivation, 17(75-74), 37-47. [In Persian]
Kim, SE., Honda, Y., Hashizume, M., Kan, H., Lim, YH., Lee, H., Kim, CT., Yi, SM., and Kim H. (2017). Seasonal analysis of the short-term effects of air pollution on daily mortality in Northeast Asia. Sci Total Environ. 2017 Jan 15; 576:850-857. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.036. Epub 2016 Nov 7.
Kollanus, V., Tiittanen, P., Niemi, JV., and Lanki, T. (2016). Effects of long-range transported air pollution from vegetation fires on daily mortality and hospital admissions in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. Environ Res. 151,351-358. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.08.003. Epub 2016 Aug 13.
Levy, D., Sheppard, L., Checkoway, H., Kaufman, J., Lumley, T., Koenig, J. (2001). A case 0 crossover analysis of particulate matter air pollution and out – of – hospital primary cardiac arrest. Epidemiology, 12, 193-9.
 
Malek Afzali, H., Halakoee, Naini, K. and Younesian, M. (2001). The Relationship Between Increasing Air Pollution and Death in People Over 64 Years Old in Tehran. Quarterly Journal of Monitoring, 1(1), 24-19. [In Persian]
Miri, M., Derakhshan, Z., Allahabadi, A., Ahmadi, E., Oliveri Conti, G., Ferrante, M. and Aval HE. (2016). Mortality and morbidity due to exposure to outdoor air pollution in Mashhad metropolis, Iran. The AirQ model approach. Environ Res. 151,451-457. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.07.039. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
Mo, EF. (1997). Ministry of environment and forest, the government of India. White paper on pollution in Delhi with an action plan.
 
Ostro, B. (2004). Outdoor air pollution: assessing the environmental burden of disease at national and local levels, Health aspects of air pollution with particulate matter, Ozone, and Nitrogen Dioxide. World Health Organization (W.H.O), Bonn, Germany.
 
Routledge, HC., and Ayres, JG. (2005). Air pollution and the heart. Occup, Med. 55, 439-47.
 
Peters, A., Dockery, DW. Muller, JE. And Mittleman, MA. (2001). Increased particulate air pollution and the triggering of myocardial infarction. Circulation, 103, 2810-5.
 
Schwartz, J. (1999). Air pollution and hospital admissions for heart disease in eight U.S. counties. Epidemiology, 10(1), 17-22.
 
Schwartz, J. and Morris, R. (1995). Air pollution and hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in Detroit, Michigan. Am J Epidemiol, 142, 23-35.
 
Shireepour, Z. (2009). Investigation of seasonal and daily changes of air pollutants and its relation with meteorological parameters, Journal of Physics of Earth and Space, 35(2), 137-119. [In Persian]
 
Tehran Municipality, Behesht Zahra Organization. (2007). Recorded Data of Deaths according to Death Certificate.
 
Yang, Ch., Chang Ch., Chuang, HY. and Tsai, Sh.Sh. (2014).Relationship between air pollution and daily mortality in a subtropical city: Taipei, Taiwan. Environ Res Public Health, 11(5), 5081-5093.
 
Zmirou, D., Schwartz, J., Saez, M., Zanobetti, A., Wojtyniak, B., Touloumi, G., Spix, C., Ponce de Leon, A., Le Moullec, Y., Bacharova, L., Schouten, J., Ponka, A. and Katsouyanni, K. (1998). Time – Series Analysis of air pollution and cause-specific mortality. Epidemiology, 9(5), 495-503.