تحلیل و تبیین رابطه همبستگی شاخص توسعه انسانی و شاخص توسعه پایدار و تطبیق این شاخص‌ها در ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران

2 کارشناس، امور برنامه‌ریزی، نظارت و آمایش سرزمین سازمان برنامه‌وبودجه کشور

3 رئیس‌ گروه محیط‌زیست، امور برنامه‌ریزی، نظارت و آمایش سرزمین سازمان برنامه‌وبودجه کشور

10.30473/ee.2020.7231

چکیده

شاخص اهداف توسعه پایدار در سال‌های اخیر توجه بسیاری از محققان و سیاست‌گذاران را به خود جلب کرده است. شاخص توسعه انسانی نیز که بر اساس چند شاخص مهم و کلیدی محاسبه می‌شود اگرچه یک روش قدیمی‌تر برای مقایسه کشورها در بعد سلامت و آموزش به حساب می‌آید اما همچنان در بین محققان و سیاست‌گذاران یک شاخص موردقبول است. هدف از این مطالعه بررسی وضعیت ایران در شاخص توسعه انسانی و شاخص اهداف توسعه پایدار و نیز بررسی همبستگی این دو شاخص بر اساس اطلاعات تمام کشورها است. در این تحقیق از روش همبستگی پیرسون و رگرسیون خطی در نرم‌افزار SPSS به‌منظور بررسی ارتباط بین دو شاخص استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان می‌دهد که ارتباط معنی‌دار و قوی بین این دو شاخص برقرار است. در بررسی همبستگی بین اهداف 17 گانه اهداف توسعه پایدار با شاخص توسعه انسانی مشخص شد که اهداف 15 و 17 ارتباط معنی‌داری با شاخص توسعه انسانی ندارند. درحالی‌که ارتباط دیگر اهداف با شاخص توسعه انسانی معنی‌دار بود. به‌طورکلی می‌توان نتیجه‌گیری کرد بین شاخص توسعه انسانی و شاخص اهداف توسعه پایدار ارتباط معنی‌دار قوی وجود دارد. درحالی‌که آرمان 17 با هیچ‌کدام از زیر شاخص‌ها دیگر و شاخص توسعه انسانی ارتباط ندارد. یکی از نقطه‌ضعف‌های اهداف توسعه پایدار مدنظر قرار دادن آرمان‌های بلند پروازانه است و این موضوع بسیج مردم و حکمرانان را برای رسیدن به تمام این اهداف ایده‌آل سخت خواهد کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis and Explanation of Correlation between Human Development and Sustainable Development Indices and Adaptation of these Indices in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Pendar 1
  • Sajad Bahrami 2
  • Farzam Pourasghar Sangachin 3
1 Assistant Professor of Economic and Agricultural Development, University of Tehran
2 Expert, Affair of Planning, Supervision and Spatial Planning, Budget and Planning Organization, Tehran
3 Head of Environment, Affair of Planning, Supervision and Spatial Planning, Budget and Planning
چکیده [English]

The index of sustainable development goals have attracted attention of many researchers and policy makers in recent years. The Human Development Index, which is based on several key indicators, although an older approach to comparing countries is often considered as a health and education issue, but an indicator is still acceptable amongst researchers and policymakers. The purpose of this study is to survey the status of Iran in the human development index and the indicators of sustainable development goals and also analysis the correlation between these two indicators based on the information of all countries. In this research, Pearson correlation and linear regression were used in SPSS software to verify the relationship between two indicators. The results show that there is a meaningful and strong correlation between these two indicators. In the survey of correlation between the 17 goals of SDGs and HDI, it is clear that goals of 15 and 17 do not have a meaningful relationship with the human development index. While other communication goals were meaningful with the human development index. In general, it can be concluded that there is a significant relationship between the human development index and the index of sustainable development goals. One of the drawbacks of the SDGs is the ambitious Goals that will make it hard to mobilize people and rulers to achieve all these ideal goals.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Human Development Index
  • Sustainable Development Goals
  • Environment
Alikhani, S. M., Asefzadeh, S., Mohebbifar, R., & Montazeri, A. (2012). “Human Development Index (HDI) in Iran and selected countries”. Payesh, 11 (4), 415-423. [In Persian].
Alves, André, Letícia Costa Curta, Lilian da Silva Dias. (2017). “Analysis of Correlation among HDI (Human Development Index), Violence and Corruption Perceptions Index”.  5th CR3+ Conference - Making Corporate Responsibility Useful, At Helsinki, Finland
Amiri, N. (2012). “The method of calculating the human development index”. Economic Journal, 11(12), 131-138. [In Persian].
Baseri, B., & Farhadi Kia, A., (2008). “The Analysis of Factors Affecting Human Development Index in Zanjan Province”. Journal of Economic Research and Policies, 16 (47), 5-23. [In Persian].
Baumol, William & Oates, Wallace, (1988). “The Theory of Environmental Policy”. Cambridge University Press, https://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:cup:cbooks:9780521322249.
Dickinson, Elizabeth, (2012). “GDP: a brief history”. ForeignPolicy.com. Retrieved 25 April2012.
Fleming, Aysha, Russell M Wise, Heidi Hansen, & Linda Sams. (2017). “The sustainable development goals: A case study”. Marine Policy, 86,  94–103. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2017.09.019.
Gorica, K., Gumeni, A. (2013). “Towards sustainable development: Relationship between HDI and GDP per capita in Albania”. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 4(12), 3 – 5.
Harttgen, K., & Klasen, S. (2012). “A household-based human developmentindex”. World Development, 40(5), 878–899.
Independent Expert Advisory Group on a Data Revolution (IEAG) (2014). “A world that counts”. Mobilizing the data revolution for sustainable development.
Khakpour, B. A., & Bavan Pouri, A. (2010). “Reviews Muslim countries in the HDI”. 4th international congress of the islamic world geographers (ICIWG), 14- 15 April 2010- Zahedan, iran. [In Persian].
Loewe, M. (2012). "Post 2015: How to reconcile the millennium development goals (MDGs) and the sustainable development goals (SDGs)?" (No. 18/2012). Briefing Paper.
Mostofifar, F., (2015). “A report on the achievements of the Millennium Development Goals in the world and Iran at the end of the deadline”. Organization for Defending Victims of Violence. [In Persian].
Neisi, A., (2011). “A survey on the human development index in the Provinces of Iran”. Journal Of Health Sciences, 2 (2), 55-62. [In Persian].
Pourasghar, F., salehi, E., & masnavi, M. (2011). “An Analytical- Comparative Study on Measurement Methods of Sustainable Development”. Environmental research, 1 (1), 67-82. [In Persian].
Pourasghar, F. (2015). “Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (from MDG to SDG)”. Work and Society, 186, 6-46. [In Persian].
Robert, Kates W, Thomas M Parris, & Anthony A Leiserowitz. (2005). “What is Sustainable Development? Goals, Indicators, Values, and Practice”. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 47 (3). Routledge: 8–21. doi:10.1080/00139157.2005.10524444.
Santos, Herivelto Tiago Marcondes dos & José Antônio Perrella Balestieri. (2018). “Spatial analysis of sustainable development goals: A correlation between socioeconomic variables and electricity use”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 97, 367–76. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.08.037.
Sušnik, Janez, & Pieter van der Zaag. (2017). “Correlation and causation between the UN Human Development Index and national and personal wealth and resource exploitation”. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 30 (1). Routledge: 1705–23. doi:10.1080/1331677X.2017.1383175.
Soares, S. S. D., & Osório, R. G. (2015). “Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Less is More!”. (No. 277).
Sachs, . J.D (2012). “From millennium development goals to sustainable development goals”. Lancet, 379 (9832), 2206-2211.
Tahmasebi, J, (2012). “Human Development Index and Iran's Position in Global Position”. Institute for strategic research, Strategic Reporting- 159. [In Persian].
Tran, L. (2016). “An interactive method to select a set of sustainable urbandevelopment indicators”. Ecological Indicators, 61, 418–427.
United Nations, (2016). “Sustainable Development Goals”. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/.
United Nations Secretary-General (UN-SG) (2014). “The road to dignity by 2030: Ending poverty, transforming all lives and protecting the planet”. Synthesis report of the Secretary- General on the post-2015 Agenda, New York.
United Nations (UN), (2015). “The Millennium Development Goals Report”. New York.
United Nations Development Program [UNDP], (1990). “Human Development Report”. Oxford University Press, New York.
United Nations Development Program [UNDP], (2001). “Human Development Report”. Oxford University Press, New York.
UNDP, Human Development Report, (1990; 1995; 1996; 1999; 2000; 2004)
United Nations, 1987. “Our Common Future – Brundtland Report”. Oxford University Press, pp. 204
Vasi Nab, F., & Sadr Mousavi, M. S., (2017). “The study of Comparative situation Human Development Index in the Developing Countries (Iran, Brazil, Pakistan, Turkey, Egypt and Mexico)”, Territory14, (53), 125-141. [In Persian].
World Commission on Environment Development. (1987). “Our common future”. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Zang, Zheng, Xinqing Zou, Qiaochu Song, Yali Li, & Teng Wang. (2017). “Integrated sustainable development evaluation based on human well-being indices and pressure indices: A case study of the South China Sea Neighboring Countries”. The Social Science Journal, 54 (3), 346–57. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soscij.2017.04.007.