Content Analysis of Elementary Science Books by Using Soft Educational Technology to Teach Environmental Issues in Iran and Russia

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی دانشگاه اصفهان

2 استادیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی دانشگاه اصفهان

3 دکتری تکنولوژی آموزشی، دانشگاه فدرال کازان، روسیه

10.30473/ee.2020.6918

چکیده

Hard educational technologies received more attention today while soft educational technology has been considered as one of the keys and effective technologies in teaching and learning. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the use of soft educational technologies in teaching environmental issues in the first to the third grade of elementary science textbooks of Iran and Russia. This study is a descriptive analysis of the content. The statistical population of the study is all the first, second, and third-grade textbooks of sciences in Iran and the world around us in Russia. The statistical sample included environmental issues in the first, second, and third-grade elementary science textbooks of Iran and Russia. The research tool was a researcher-made checklist made by soft educational technology and an environmental health checklist from Yale University. The results showed that allegory and role-playing hadn't used at all to teach environmental issues in Iran. Questions and answers Iran 31.95, Russia 31.64)and comparisons of objects, the discovery of similarities and differences, and conclusions )Iran  20.61, Russia  17.72) have been widely used in both countries. In Iran, more emphasis has been placed on solving problems and carrying out projects(13.40), and more emphasis has been placed on the use of daily life activities(16.45) in teaching in Russia. The results also showed that the use of soft educational technology to teach environmental issues was given more significance in the third grade of an elementary school in both of the countries. Soft technology has been used less in the first grade of the elementary school of Iran but in the second grade of the elementary school of Russia.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Content Analysis of Elementary Science Books by Using Soft Educational Technology to Teach Environmental Issues in Iran and Russia

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bibi Eshrat Zamani 1
  • Sayyed Amin Azimi 2
  • Nasim Soleimani 3
1 Professor of Educational Technology, Education Department, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Educational Technology, Education Department, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
3 Ph.D. of Educational Technology, Kazan Federal University, Russia
چکیده [English]

Hard educational technologies received more attention today while soft educational technology has been considered as one of the keys and effective technologies in teaching and learning. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the use of soft educational technologies in teaching environmental issues in the first to the third grade of elementary science textbooks of Iran and Russia. This study is a descriptive analysis of the content. The statistical population of the study is all the first, second, and third-grade textbooks of sciences in Iran and the world around us in Russia. The statistical sample included environmental issues in the first, second, and third-grade elementary science textbooks of Iran and Russia. The research tool was a researcher-made checklist made by soft educational technology and an environmental health checklist from Yale University. The results showed that allegory and role-playing hadn't used at all to teach environmental issues in Iran. Questions and answers Iran 31.95, Russia 31.64)and comparisons of objects, the discovery of similarities and differences, and conclusions )Iran  20.61, Russia  17.72) have been widely used in both countries. In Iran, more emphasis has been placed on solving problems and carrying out projects(13.40), and more emphasis has been placed on the use of daily life activities(16.45) in teaching in Russia. The results also showed that the use of soft educational technology to teach environmental issues was given more significance in the third grade of an elementary school in both of the countries. Soft technology has been used less in the first grade of the elementary school of Iran but in the second grade of the elementary school of Russia.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soft Educational Technology
  • Environment
  • Iran
  • Russia
  • Science Book
  • World Book Around Us
Al-Dajeh, H. (2012). “Assessing the environmental literacy of pre-vocational education teachers in Jordan”. College Student Journal, 46(3), 492-507.
Anggraini, W. & Karyanto, P. (2019, June). “School and Teachers' Role to Empowerment of Environmental Literacy in Prominent Middle School-Based on Adiwiyata Program”. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1233, No. 1, p. 012084). IOP Publishing.
Birney, A., Hren, B. Jackson, L. & Kendell, P. (2006). “Creating pathways to change.” In W. Filho (Ed.), Innovation, education, and communication for sustainable development (pp. 67-84). New York: Peter Lang.
Bukovskaya, G. (2002). “Games, classes on the formation of ecological culture of primary school students”. Moscow: Gumanat. [In Russian]
Department of Environmental Protection (2018). “Teacher's Educational Booklet and Environmental Protection”. Deputy of Education and Research of Environmental Protection Agency, Iran. [In Persian]
Efird, R. (2012). “Learning the land beneath our feet: NGO ‘Local Learning Materials’ and environmental education in Yunnan Province”. Journal of Contemporary China, 21(76), 569–583 DOI: 10.1080/10670564.2012.666829
Fabrigar, L. R. Petty, R. E. Smith, S. M. & Crites Jr, S. L. (2006). “Understanding knowledge effects on attitude-behavior consistency: The role of relevance, complexity, and amount of knowledge”. Journal of personality and social psychology, 90(4), 556-577. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.90.4.556.
Fazeli, F. & Mahdavi, I. (2019). “Investigating the status of environmental content in the empirical science textbooks of public education”. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology,21 (1), 227-243. DOI: 10.22034/JEST.2018.13792
Gagarin, A.V. (2004). “The nature-oriented activity of students as a condition for the formation of environmental consciousness”. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://www.dissercat.com/ [In Russian]
Ghaderi, M. (2010). “The comparison analysis of the science textbooks and teacher's guide in Iran with America (science anytime)”. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 5427-5440. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.886
Golovacheva, A.V. & Ushakova, M. M. (2009). “Environmental education of preschoolers and primary school children”. Toolkit. Nizhny Novgorod: Ecological Center Dront. [In Russian]
Gumenyuk, E.A. (2008). “Modular laboratory work program in physics as a means of forming key competencies of students”. Scientific Article, 63(2), 59-63. [In Russian]
Gvishiani, D.M. (1983). “The challenges of environmental education”. Moscow: Progress. [In Russian]
Hafizova, L.M. (1988). “How to acquaint children with the rules of behavior in nature”. Elementary School, 8, 40-46. [In Russian]
Heidari, M. (2010). “Investigating the Status of Self-Disability in the Structural Model of Academic Success Prediction” (Doctoral dissertation). [In Persian] Retrieved from https://ganj-old.irandoc.ac.ir/
Jafari Samimi, A. & Ahmadpour, S. (2011). “Investigating the relationship between environmental performance index and economic growth in developed countries”. Iranian Journal of Energy Economics, 1 (1), 55-72. [In Persian]
Jalali, L. (2015). “Concepts and applications of soft technology, futures studies, foresight”. International Conference on Modern Research in Industrial Management and Engineering, Tehran, Iran. [In Persian]
Jin, Z. (2002). “Soft technology: the essence of innovation”. Futures Research Quarterly, 18(2), 1-24.
Jin, Z. (2011). “Global technological change: From hard technology to soft technology”. Bristol, UK: Intellect Books.
Kaviani, H. Nasr, N. (2018). “Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Environmental Education in Iran; A Research Synthesis of Findings”. Interdisciplinary Studies in the Humanities, 10(4), 109-141. DOI: 10.22035/isih.2018.289
Khajoui, E. Soltani, A. & Esmi, K. (2020). “A comparative study of environmental education in Iran's primary school curriculum and selected countries”. Quarterly Journal of Environmental Education and Sustainable Development.8 (2), 9-24. [In Persian] http://ee.journals.pnu.ac.ir/article_6561.html
Kozlova, M. A. (2012). “Environmental and economic values in illustrative material of textbooks of "The world around us" for elementary school”. Domestic and foreign pedagogy, 4(7), 118-147. [In Russian].
Lattner, A, D. Gehrke, J. D. Timm, I. J. & Herzog, O. (2005). “A knowledge-based approach to behavior decisions in intelligent vehicles”. In Proceedings of the IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, (IV’05), Las Vegas, June 6 - 8, pp. 466-471.
Ledneva O.S. (2015). “Ecological education of schoolchildren”. Paper presented at the VII International scientific conference of problems and prospects for the development of education, Krasnodar, Russia. [In Russian]
Lesani, S. B. & Edalatjou, A. (2017). “Analysis of the Institutional Model of the Fifty Constitutions in light of the support of environmental and governmental organizations”. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 19 (3), 217-227.
Litvinova, L.S. & Zhirenko, O.E. (2007). “Moral and environmental education of schoolchildren”. Moscow: 5 for knowledge. [In Russian]
Lukina, A.V. Skorobogatykh, I. I. Potravny, I. M. & Kuznetsov, V.V. (2017). “Russian experience in applying the green university strategy”. In S. N. Vasiliev & A. Zvirkun (Eds.), (MLSD 2017). Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Management of Large-Scale Systems Development (pp. 130-138). Moscow: Institute of Problem Management. [In Russian]
Mashallahinejad, Z. Jafarisani, H. Mahram, B. Saeedy rezvani, M. & Jalayeri Laeen, S. (2019). “The content analysis of the elementary science curriculum from environmental components”. Research in Curriculum Planning, 16(63), 122-138. [In Persian] http://jsr-e.khuisf.ac.ir/article_669735.html
McBeth, W. & Volk, T. L. (2009). “The national environmental literacy project: A baseline study of middle-grade students in the United States”. The Journal of Environmental Education, 41(1) 55-67. DOI: 10.1080/00958960903210031
McBride, B. B. Brewer, C. A. Berkowitz, A. R. & Borrie, W. T. (2013). “Environmental literacy, ecological literacy, eco-literacy: What do we mean and how did we get here?”. Ecosphere, 4(5), 1-20. Doi: 10.1890/ES13-00075.1
Mehraban, Z. (2018). “Environmental Education in Experimental Science Textbooks of Elementary School (First to Third Grades)”. Fourth International Conference on Environmental Planning and Management. Tehran. The University of Tehran.
Mironov, A.V. (2019). “Continuity in the environmental education of preschoolers and primary school children”. Elementary School, 3, 3-9. [In Russian]
Moiseeva, L.V. & Nikitina, Y.G. (2011). “Formation ecological competence of primary schoolchildren”. Pedagogical Education in Russia, 2, 203-210. [In Russian]
Moosavi, N S. Sharifian Saani, M. Ghaa'edAmini Haarooni, Gh. Goldooz, S. Darvishi, A & Ghamarzaad Shishvaan F. (2019). “Improving the Attitudes of Tehrani preschool teachers towards the environment through teaching”. QJOE. 2019; 35 (1), 111-128. [In Persian] http://qjoe.ir/article-1-1595-fa.html
Morzova, G.I. (2002). “State information support for nature management and environmental protection”. Moscow: NIA-Priroda. [In Russian]
Nishimura, H., Kanoshima, E. & Kono, K. (2019). “Advancement in Science and Technology and Human Societies”. In, S. Abe, M. Ozawa, & Y. Kawata (Eds.), Science of Societal Safety: Living at Times of Risks and Disasters (pp. 15-26). Springer, Singapore. DOI:10.1007/978-981-13-2775-9_2
Norman, D. (2014). “Things that make us smart: defending human attributes in the age of the machine”. Cambridge, MA: Perseus.
Parishani, N. Mirshah Jafari, S.E. Sharifian, F. & Farhadian, M. (2018). “A comparative study of environmental education goals and its related activities in Iran and selected countries to suggest activities for Iran”. Modern Educational Approaches, 12 (1), 1-24. [In Persian] 
Ramazani Qavam Abadi, M. (2013). “Environmental Protection in the Constitutional Law of the Islamic Republic of Iran”. Journal of Judicial Law Views, 63, 93-140. [In Persian] 
Reiser, R. A. (2007). “A history of instructional design and technology”. In R. A. Reiser & J. V. Dempsey (Eds.), Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (2nd ed., pp. 17-34). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Salehi Omran, E. Izadi, S & Rezaei, F. (2009). “Content analysis of elementary school textbooks based on global education components”. Curriculum Studies, 4 (13-14), 141-177. [In Persian] 
Salsabili, N. (2011). “Learning opportunities in a process-based integration of curriculum perspectives”. Quarterly Journal of Education, 27(1), 63-93. [In Persian] 
Shobayri, S. Sarmadi, M. & Sharifian, R. (2011). “Need assessment and set priorities for students and teachers of junior division (guided school) on the field of environment based on experts' points of view”. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 4(43), 143-150. [In Persian] 
Sobhani Nejad, M. & Molla Zehi, A. (2010). “Investigating the components in applying information and communication technology (ICT) by teachers in the schools’ curriculum planning process”. Curriculum Planning Knowledge & Research in Educational Sciences, 9(34), 42-59. [In Persian] 
UNESCO. (2019). “Human learning in the digital era”. Retrieved from https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000367761.locale=en
Vorobieva, N. F. Maksimova, E. V. (2012). “School environmental education”. Educating Schoolchildren. 4, 32–39. [In Russian]
Werner, D. & Bower, B. (2012). “Helping Health Workers Learn: A book of methods, aids, and ideas for instructors at the village level”. Berkeley, CA: Hesperian Health Guides.